Culture of Polis, Year XVIII (2021), Issue 45, pp. 143-156
ISSN 1820-4589

ALEKSANDAR MATKOVIĆ
Faculty of European Legal and Political Studies, Novi Sad, Serbia
al.matkovic@gmail.com

UDC: 27-4:316.624
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51738/Kpolisa2021.18.2r.2.04

Review work
Received: 2021-03-23
Approved: 2021-04-18
Online: 2021-07-03

PDF
VERSKA MORALNA PANIKA I NJENE DRUŠTVENE POSLEDICE
RELIGIOUS MORAL PANIC AND ITS SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES

SUMMARY
This paper analyzes the phenomenon of religious moral panic, seen as a specific type of general sociological concept of moral panic. The first section presents the general characteristics of this phenomenon. The second section is a discussion about the causes of its origin, which consists of pointing out and observing the key factors that contributed to it. Within the third section, we pointed out the general consequences that the phenomenon of religious moral panic left on society. The final section contains a legal analysis of the characteristics of actions that are connected to the inciting and expansion of moral panic, in terms of recognizing their illegality and the specific offenses that are associated with them. Among the general conclusions, it was emphasized that incitement and spreading of religious moral panic, in addition to ethical impropriety, also delves deeply into the domain of illegality, because such behavior is legally associated with numerous and diverse crimes. In this regard, it was suggested to make parallel efforts towards raising awareness among citizens about the moral inadequacy of such acts, as well as about legal mechanisms for their prohibition and stipulated legal consequences for the perpetrators.
KEYWORDS
moral panic, discrimination, equality, religious intolerance, hate crimes

REFERENCES

  1. Anonimni autor 1. 2014. „Dramatično- u sektama u Srbiji 200 000 ljudi, bave se pedofilijom i prostitucijom!” Večernje novosti Online, 24.11.2014. http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/drustvo/aktuelno.290.html:521093-U-sektama-u-Srbiji-200000-ljudi-bave-se-pedofilijom-i-prostitucijom.
  2. Anonimni autor 2. 2014. „Srbija u paklu sekti: Satanisti navode više od 200.000 ljudi na pedofiliju i prostituciju!” Kurir, 24.11.2014. http://www.kurir.rs/vesti/drustvo/srbija-u-paklu-sekti-satanisti-navode-vise-od-200000-ljudi-na-pedofilliju-i-prostituciju-clanak-1621538.
  3. Batinić, M. 2013. „Strašno: U Srbiji deluje više od 40 sekti, od kojih su mnoge satanističke!” Telegraf, 31.08.2013. http://www.telegraf.rs/vesti/786476-strasno-u-srbiji-deluje-vise-od-40-sekti-od-kojih-su-mnoge-satanisticke.
  4. Béland, Daniel. 2005. The Political Construction of Collective Insecurity: From Moral Panic to Blame Avoidance and Organized Irresponsibility. Cambridge: Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University.
  5. Blagojević, Mirko. 2005. Religija i crkva u transformacijama društva: sociološko-istorijska analiza religijske situacije u srpsko-crnogorskom i ruskom (post)komunističkom društvu. Beograd: Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju / I.P. Filip Višnjić.
  6. Bromley, David G. 1991. „Satanism: The new cult scare.” In: The Satanism Scare, eds. James T. Richardson, Joel Best and David G. Bromley, 49-72. Hawthorne: Aldine De Gruyter.
  7. Crews, Gordon, and Reid Montgomery. 1996. „Adolescent Satanist: A Sensible Law Enforcement Approach.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Society for Police and Criminal Psychology / Springer Publications, New York, 11(1): 13-18.
  8. Douglas, John E, Ann W. Burgess, Allen G. Burgess, and Robert K. Ressler. 2006. Crime Classification Manual: A Standard System for Investigating and Classifying Violent Crimes, second edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (imprint of John Wiley & Sons, Inc).
  9. Đorđević, Dragoljub. 1998. Proroci „nove istine”- sekte i kultovi (šta treba da znamo o novim religioznim pokretima?). Niš: JUNIR.
  10. Đorđević, Dragoljub. 1999. „Anti-cult movement- a possible expression of religious intolerance.” Facta universitatis – series: Philosophy and Sociology, University of Niš, Niš, 2 (6/2): 258-266.
  11. Ђорђевић, Драгољуб. 2003. Секте и култови. Београд: ИП Жарко Албуљ.
  12. Ђорђевић, Јелена. 2002. „Култура као чинилац транзиције и модернизације.” Теме, Универзитет у Нишу, Ниш, 24(3-4): 259-268.
  13. Elijade, Mirča. 1983. Okultizam, magija i pomodne kulture. Zagreb: Grafički zavod Hrvatske.
  14. Faller, Kathleen. 2003. Understanding and assessing child sexual maltreatment, second edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  15. Fine, Gary, and Jeffrey Victor. 1994. „Satanic Tourism – Adolescent Dabblers and Identity Work.” The Phi Delta Kappan, PDK International, Arlington, 76(1): 70-72.
  16. Fontaine, Jean La. 1998. Speak of the Devil: allegations of satanic abuse in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. Gato Kanu, Tersila. 2008. Veštice- ispovesti i tajne. Beograd: Clio.
  18. Ilić, Sanja. 2013. „Orgije na groblju: Srpski političari u satanističkoj porno-sekti.” Kurir, 28.04.2013. http://www.kurir.rs/orgije-na-groblju-srpski-politicari-u-satanistickoj-porno-sekti-clanak-766593.
  19. Ivančević, T. 2007. „Kolju, kasape, jedu…” Press Online, 06.09.2007. http://www.pressonline.rs/info/hronika/19446/kolju-kasape-jedu.html.
  20. Jenkins, Philip. 2004. „Satanism and Ritual Abuse.” In The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, ed. James R. Lewis, 221-242. New York: Oxford University Press.
  21. Jones, Marsha, and Emma Jones. 1999. Mass Media. London: Macmillan Press.
  22. Kappeler, Victor E, and Aaron E. Kappeler. 2004. „Speaking of Evil and Terrorism: The Political and Ideological Construction of a Moral Panic.” In Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Criminological Perspectives, ed. Mathieu Deflem, 175 – 197. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  23. Lanning, Kenneth V. 1989. Satanic, occult, ritualistic crime: A law enforcement perspective. Quantico: National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, FBI Academy.
  24. Lazar, Žolt. 1991. Okultizam danas. Novi Sad: samoizdanje.
  25. Lowney, Kathleen. 2002. „Teen Satanists are Rebelling Against the Dominant Culture.” In Satanism, ed. Tamara Roleff, 67-91. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
  26. MacHovec, Frank. 1992. „Cults: Forensic and therapeutic aspects.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 10(1): 31-37.
  27. Matković, Aleksandar. 2016d. „Antikultna legislativa u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama.” Pravni zapisi, Pravni fakultet Univerziteta Union u Beogradu, Beograd, 7 (1): 134-152.
  28. Матковић, Александар. 2016c. „Француски Закон бр. 2001-504 од 12. јуна 2001. као извор верске дискриминације и друштвене дестабилизације.” Гласник Адвокатске коморе Војводине, Адвокатска комора Војводине, Нови Сад, 88(5): 199-216
  29. Matković, Aleksandar. 2016b. „Krivična dela povezana sa okultizmom–pojam, pasivni subjekti i objekti radnje izvršenja.” Crimen, Pravni fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu, Beograd, 7 (2): 207-222.
  30. Matković, Aleksandar. 2016a. „Krivično-pravni aspekti okultnih ritualnih aktivnosti.” Doktorska disertacija. Univerzitet Union u Beogradu: Pravni fakultet.
  31. Matković, Aleksandar. 2017. „Kriminalitet i satanizam–međusobni odnos i obeležja krivičnih dela.” Pravni zapisi, Pravni fakultet Univerziteta Union u Beogradu, Beograd, 8 (2): 296-316.
  32. Nathan, Debbie, and Michael Snedeker. 2001. Satan’s Silence: Ritual Abuse and the Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt, second edition. Linkoln: Authors Choice Press.
  33. Noblitt, James, and Pamela Perskin Noblitt. 2000. Cult and Ritual Abuse – It’s History, Anthropology and Recent Discovery in Contemporary America, second edition. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  34. Oliver J. Eric, and Thomas J. Wood. 2014. „Conspiracy Theories and the Paranoid Style(s) of Mass Opinion.” American Journal of Political Science, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 58(4): 952-966.
  35. Olson-Raymer, Hayle. 1990. Occult Crime: A Law Enforcement Primer. Sacramento: Office of Criminal Justice Planning.
  36. Räikkä, Juha. 2009. „Оn Political Conspiracy Theories.” The Journal of Political Philosophy, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 17(2): 185-201.
  37. Reichert Jenny, and James T. Richardson. 2012. „Decline of Moral Panic: A Social Psychological and Socio-Legal Examination of the Current Status of Satanism.” Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, University of California Press, Oakland, 16(2): 47-63.
  38. Richardson James T., Joel Best, and David G. Bromley. 1991. „Satanism as a Social Problem.” In The Satanism Scare, eds. James T. Richardson, Joel Best and David G. Bromley, 3-21. Hawthorne: Aldine De Gruyter.
  39. Robbins, Susan. 2002. „Social and Cultural Forces were Partially Responsible for Satanic Panic.” In Satanism, ed. Tamara Roleff, 91-103. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
  40. Robin, Corey. 2004. Fear: The History of a Political Idea. New York: Oxford University Press.
  41. Robinson, Bruce. 2007. „Ritual Abuse (RA).” Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/ra.htm.
  42. Robinson, Bruce. 2010. „Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA).” Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/sra.htm.
  43. Ross, Colin. 1995. Satanic Ritual Abuse: Principles of Treatment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  44. Rothe, Dawn, and Stephen L. Muzzatti. 2004. „Enemies Everywhere: Terrorism, Moral Panic, and US Civil Society.” Critical Criminology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 12(3): 327–350.
  45. N, „Satanisti haraju Srbijom.” Press Online, 03.09.2007, http://www.pressonline.rs/info/hronika/19234/satanisti-haraju-srbijom.html, 26/12/2014
  46. Stojadinović, M. 2007. „Satanisti mu naredili: Pobij Srbe.” Pravda, 03.09.2007.
  47. Sunstein, Cass R., and Adrian Vermeule. 2009. „Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures.” The Journal of Political Philosophy, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 17(2)/2009: 202-227.
  48. Tompson, Kenet. 2003. Moralna panika. Beograd: Clio.
  49. Ungar, Sheldon. 2001. „Moral panic versus the risk society: the implications of the changing sites of social anxiety.” British Journal of Sociology, Taylor & Francis Ltd, Milton Park, 52(2)/2001: 271–291.
  50. Young Jоhn, and Ezra Griffith. 1992. „A Critical Evaluation of Coercive Persuasion as Used in the Assessment of Cults.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 10(1): 89-101.
  51. Young, Mary de. 1994. „One Face of the Devil: The Satanic Ritual Abuse Moral Crusade and the Law.” Behavioral Sciences and the Law, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 12(4)/1994: 389-407.
  52. Кривични законик [КЗ], „Службени гласник Републике Србије”, бр. 85/2005, 88/2005 – испр., 107/2005 – испр., 72/2009, 111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014, 94/2016 и 35/2019.
  53. Устав Републике Србије, „Службени гласник Републике Србије”, бр. 98/2006.