Culture of Polis, Year XVIII (2021), Issue 45, pp. 87-100
ISSN 1820-4589

DANILO VUJOVIĆ
National Security Academy, Belgrade, Serbia
danilovujovic86@gmail.com
NEDELJKO CVETKOVIĆ
National Security Academy, Belgrade, Serbia

UDC: 355/359:355.01
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51738/Kpolisa2021.18.2r.1.06

Review work
Received: 2021-04-17
Approved: 2021-05-15
Online: 2021-07-03

PDF
DERADIKALIZACIJA BORACA POVRATNIKA I DOMAĆIH TERORISTA
DERADICALIZATION OF RETURNING FOREIGN FIGHTERS AND HOMEGROWN TERORRISTS

SUMMARY
In the last couple of years, with the prolification of the Migrant Crisis and the defeat of the Islamic State, the return of the foreign fighters, who went form Europe to the Caliphate and joined the local conflict, as well as the problem of the homegrown terrorism have become the focal point of almost all national security strategies of European countries. The situation that followed drove the authors to set the possible approaches to solving this challenge to European security as a goal for their research. The subject of this article encompasses the process of deradicalization, as the only humane way to deal with the problem at hand, as well as the process of radicalization, as necessary for understanding the formation of the individuals that pose a threat to the security of Europe. The article also tackles the preventive work directed at those social groups that are deemed susceptible to radicalization, as well as the use of individualized and holistic approach to the radicalized individuals. Special consideration is given to the programs of deradicalization as a form of institutionalized way of dealing with this type of a security risk. In the conclusion the authors give their own view of what is the most adeqaute approach when working with radicalized individuals and the role of certain elements of society in it.
KEYWORDS
deradicalization, radicalization, foreign fighters, homegrown terorrism, deradicalization programs, phases of radicalization

REFERENCES

  1. Musolino, Santina. 2019. “The European Union and the Preventing Radicalisation and Terrorism Policy.” In Preventing Radicalisation and Terrorism in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Policies, eds. Maria Luisa Maniscalco and Valeria Rosato, 2-24. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  2. Hoffman, Adam and Furlan Marta. 2020. Challenges Posed By Returning Foreign Fighters. Washington, D.C: George Washington University.
  3. Крстић, Марко. 2019. „Нови приступ у сузбијању радикализма и насилног екстремизма као увода у тероризам.” Ревија за криминологију и кривично право 1/19: 121-136.
  4. Pokalova, Elena. 2020. Returning Islamist Foreign Fighters: Threats and Challenges to the West. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  5. Симеуновић, Драган. 2016. „Исламска држава (ИСИЛ, ИСИС, ДАЕШ)”, Национална безбедност, бр. 3/2016, Академија за националну безбедност, Београд, 2016.
  6. Strazzari, Francesco. 2016. “Foreign Fighters as a Challenge for International Relations Theory.” In Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, eds. Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, 49-62. The Hague: Asser Press. DOI 10.1007/978-94-6265-099-2.
  7. Holtgrave,s Lindsey. 2012. “The Politics of Identity: The Roots of Radicalization and Home-grown Terrorism Amongst Second and Third Generation Immigrants in Europe.” Master’s thesis. University of North Carolina.
  8. Precht, Tomas. 2007. Home grown terrorism and Islamist radi-calisation in Europe. København: Danish Ministry of Justice.
  9. Comolli, Virginia. 2020. “Q&A: What has become of ISIS’ foreign fighters?” The International Institute for Strategic Studies. Последњи приступ: 14.02.2021. године. https://www.iiss.org/blogs/analysis/2020/06/csdp-isis-foreign-fighters.
  10. Цветковић, Н., Вујовић, Д., 2019., „Експанзија тероризма у Западној Европи у светлу мигрантске кризе”, Политичка ревија 3/2019, 151-168.
  11. Speckhard, Anne and Shajkovci Ardian. 2018. “The Balkan Jihad Recruitment to Violent Extremism and Issues Facing Returning Foreign Fighters in Kosovo and Southern Serbia.” Soundings (Vol. 101, No. 2): 79-109.
  12. Schmid, Alex P. and Tinnes Judith. 2015. „“Foreign (Terrorist) Fighters with IS: A European Perspective.” The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague 6 (no. 8): 1-69. DOI: 10.19165/2015.1.08
  13. Goshi, Anisa and Van Leuven Dallin. 2017. Sveobuhvatna procena percepcije o radikalizaciji na nivou zajednice na Kosovu. Priština: RTC consulting.
  14. Kulturni centar DamaD [KCD]. 2018. Referalni mehanizam za prevenciju i suzbijanje ekstremizma i radikalizma. Novi Pazar: Kulturni centar DamaD.
  15. Weimann, Gabriel. 2016. “The Emerging Role of Social Media in the Recruitment of Foreign Fighters.” In Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, eds. Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, 77-95. The Hague: Asser Press. DOI 10.1007/978-94-6265-099-2.
  16. Radicalisation Awareness Network Centre of Excellence [RAN]. 2016. Strani borci povratnici i izazov reintegracije. Radicalisation Awareness Network.
  17. Govier, Trudy and David Boutland. 2020. „Dilemmas regarding returning ISIS fighters.” Ethics & Global Politics 13(2): 93-107. DOI: 10.1080/16544951.2020.1756562.
  18. Stephens, William and Stijn Sieckelinck. 2020. “Being resilient to radicalisation in PVE policy: a critical examination.” Critical Studies on Terrorism 13(1): 142-165. DOI: 10.1080/17539153.2019.1658415.
  19. United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. 2016. Preventing Violent Extremism Through Promoting Inclusive Development, Tolerance And Respect For Diversity. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  20. Radicalisation Awareness Network Centre of Excellence [RAN]. 2017. Odgovori povratnicima: Inostrani teroristički borci i njihove porodice. Radicalisation Awareness Network.
  21.  Šaranović, Nikola B. 2020. “Мontenegro: Religion in Prisons.” In Religion and Prison: An Overview of Contemporary Europe, eds. Julia Martínez-Ariño and Anne-Laure Zwilling, 257-268. New York: Springer Nature. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-36834-0_16
  22. Kerchove, Gilles de and Christiane Höhn. 2016. “The Regional Answers and Governance Structure for Dealing with Foreign Fighters: The Case of the EU.” In Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, eds. Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, 299-332. The Hague: Asser Press. DOI 10.1007/978-94-6265-099-2.
  23. Frenett, Ross and Tanya Silverman. 2016. “Foreign Fighters: Motivations for Travel to Foreign Conflicts.” In Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, eds. Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, 63-76. The Hague: Asser Press. DOI 10.1007/978-94-6265-099-2.
  24. Institute for Economics & Peace [IEP]. 2020. Global Terrorism Index 2020: Measuring the Impact of Terrorism. Sydney: Institute for Economics & Peace.
  25. Danish Institute for International Studies [DIIS]. 2015. An Introduction to the Danish Approach to Countering and Preventing Extremism and Radicalization. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.
  26. Higgins, Andrew. 2014. “For Jihadists, Denmark Tries Rehabilitation.” The New York Times, 13. децембар 2014.
  27. Грбић, Зоран С. и Бориша Лечић. 2020. „Експанзија исламистичког тероризма у другој половини 20. века.” Култура полиса XVII (42): 83-97.