KULTURA POLISA https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp CULTURE OF POLIS - Journal for Nurturing of Democratic Political Culture - is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal en-US editor@kpolisa.com (Željko Bjelajac) editor@kpolisa.com (Aleksandar Filipović) Wed, 08 Nov 2023 13:12:44 +0100 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 GEOPOLITICS OF HEALTH AND THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1493 <p>Geopolitics of health represents a pioneering subdiscipline in the context of geopolitics as a synthetic science that we have defined in order to adequately problematize and analyze the Covid-19 pandemic that the entire world has faced. The research field of health geopolitics refers to the influence of socio-geographical, economic and political factors on endangering people’s health as a public good. Therefore, using the example of the Covid-19 pandemic, it is possible to monitor the aforementioned impacts and further relate them to the consequences that have already been proven. In addition, by adequately analyzing the known facts, it is possible to anticipate future consequences, both of the pandemic itself, and of health, political, economic and other measures prescribed by competent institutions. Therefore, in the first part of the paper, we ask batteries of questions related to the Covid-19 pandemic, so that in the second part of the paper, relying on relevant and available scientific and professional sources, we offer answers to the questions. The aim of the work is to show the scientific problematic, media manipulativeness and health destructiveness of announcements and decisions related to the Covid- 19 pandemic. In our work, we use the method of analysis and synthesis, the method of deduction and the geopolitical method, in order to adequately respond to the research problem, laying the foundation for further research in the context of the geopolitics of health.</p> Ljubiša Despotović, Vanja Glišin Copyright (c) 2023 Ljubiša Despotović, Vanja Glišin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1493 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 SOCIO-STRUCTURAL AND CULTURAL DETERMINANTS OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN FAMILIES IN RURAL AREAS https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1472 <p>Emotional abuse against a child in the family can negatively affect his or her physical, mental, spiritual, moral, as well as social development. The purpose of this paper is to analyze socio-structural and cultural determinants of emotional abuse against children in rural areas, given that these groups of determinants differ in the conditions under which urban and rural abuse is more or less likely to occur. Different behaviors can be classified under emotional abuse – rejection, degradation, intimidation, different discriminatory practices, and certainly denial of emotional response. The methods of theoretical content analysis with basic methods of concretization and specialization, normative, comparative method, as well as basic quantitative analysis of tabulated data are applied in this paper. The expected results of the research should give a clearer picture of the differences in socio-structural and cultural treatment of activities that can be considered emotional abuse against children in rural areas, compared to urban areas. It is also interesting to analyze comparative data on the prevalence of emotional abuse against children in families in the Balkan region. Comparing the experiences of urban and rural areas, this paper contributes to a clearer picture of the conditionality of emotional abuse against children in rural areas and makes overarching recommendations to prevent the basic socio-structural and cultural determinants and factors in this domain.</p> Milan Počuča , Jelena Matijašević Copyright (c) 2023 Milan Počuča , Jelena Matijašević https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1472 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN VIDEO GAME DEVELOPMENT https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1496 <p>In this paper, we study the vital role of artificial intelligence (AI) in the development of video games, with a focus on various aspects of AI application in this industry. In the introduction, we discuss both the development of video games and the role of AI systems in the user experience, defining the progression of AI’s role in video games. In the following section, we investigate how in-game entities and AI collaborate. Here, we analyze basic concepts such as Non-Playable Characters (NPCs) and how AI enhances their intelligence and reactivity in the game. The mechanisms of AI in video games are a crucial point of consideration in the next part of the paper. We explain how various AI techniques are used for decision-making, player tracking, and adapting the game to their actions. Furthermore, we explore the use of AI in video games beyond NPC control, examining examples such as procedurally generated worlds and player experience modeling. This application of AI contributes to a deeper and more dynamic player experience. In the modern application of AI in video games, we delve into advanced uses of machine learning and deep neural networks in game development. Here, we consider how AI is used for game personalization, user data analysis, and enhancing graphics and sound. Finally, we discuss the future of video games and the role of neural networks in their development. We predict the growth of AI in various aspects of games and how it will shape the future player experience. In conclusion, we assert that artificial intelligence has become an indispensable part of video game development, and its impact will inevitably expand in the future, enabling increasingly rich, dynamic, and personalized games for players worldwide.</p> Aleksandar Filipović Copyright (c) 2023 Aleksandar Filipović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1496 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 BERLIN PROCESS AND THE OPEN BALKANS: EFFECTIVENESS, COMPLEMENTARITY AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES IN THE PROCESS OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1491 <p>The Berlin Process was established in 2014 as an initiative of several member states of the European Union under German leadership to engage with six partners from the Western Balkans. The main goal is regional cooperation within the framework that should contribute to the acceleration of European integration in the Western Balkans, but also to the creation of a common regional market. The Open Balkans is an initiative launched by the leaders of Albania, North Macedonia and Serbia in 2019. The main goal is to create a single market in the Western Balkans based on the principles of the EU market and the free movement of goods, people, capital and services. Paper’s aim is to analyse the effectiveness of one and the other initiative, their complementarity and comparative advantages of one over the other and vice versa. Exclusively for the purpose of this, we have conducted a survey, in order to better understood the current position and the future of the two initiatives. The results show that Open Balkans initiative enjoys greater trust among respondents of the survey. We conclude that is because of faster implementation of the reached agreements and directly visible results for the economic sector and citizens in the region.</p> Sanja Jelisavac Trošić, Mitko Arnaudov Copyright (c) 2023 Sanja Jelisavac Trošić, Mitko Arnaudov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1491 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: THE NEW INEVITABILITY OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1494 <p>Artificial intelligence is one of the most fundamental areas of science and engineering. Its urban development began after the Second World War, and the name itself dates back to 1956. Today, artificial intelligence as a universal field is relevant to all intellectual tasks that tries not only to understand, but also to build intelligent entities. Given that today is characterized by facing increasingly serious environmental problems (challenges) such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, depletion of natural resources, air and water pollution, the need for innovative approaches that will help solve these problems is becoming increasingly urgent. Therefore, in this paper, we will present some of the possible ways of solving the mentioned problems. Given that the application of artificial intelligence is increasing every day and that it enters every pore of modern society, we will also make a brief review of artificial intelligence in the legal system of the European Union.</p> Žaklina Spalević, Filip Marković, Sanja Marković Copyright (c) 2023 Žaklina Spalević, Filip Marković, Sanja Marković https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1494 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 INADEQUACY OF APPLICATION OF SENTENCING POLICY FOR PERPETRATORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1495 <p>The paper addresses the issue of domestic violence in Serbia, with a focus on the judicial treatment of perpetrators of this criminal offense and the position of women as the most common victims. The aim of the paper is to examine whether the judicial treatment is lenient and inadequate, thus violating the principle of equality before the law and jeopardizing the protection of victims and children. The paper relies on quantitative analysis of official statistical data on domestic violence in Serbia over a period of 18 years (2002-2020), obtained from reports of relevant institutions. Additionally, the authors analyze verdicts of the basic courts of the Republic of Serbia using a random sampling method, investigating aspects related to circumstances considered as mitigating factors. The paper demonstrates that a significant number of reports of domestic violence are dismissed or the proceedings are halted, and the sentences imposed are mostly conditional and lenient. The authors conclude that the judicial treatment of domestic violence perpetrators in Serbia is inefficient and discriminatory, leading to inadequate protection of victims and children and the perpetuation of violent patterns. The paper also highlights the urgent need for comprehensive intervention by the state and society to prevent and combat domestic violence. The authors propose possible measures to improve the situation, such as strengthening the legal framework, providing support to victims and perpetrators, and conducting qualitative research on the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of both perpetrators and victims of domestic violence.</p> Snežana Prelević Plavšić, Đorđe Spasojević, Joko Dragojlović Copyright (c) 2023 Snežana Prelević Plavšić, Đorđe Spasojević, Joko Dragojlović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1495 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 JUDICIAL PROTECTION OF EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS DURING THE COVID PANDEMIC ON THE TERRITORY OF THE AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1492 <p>Based on the collected case law of the basic courts in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (hereinafter: APV) from 2016 to 2022, the authors examine the frequency and reasons for initiating employment disputes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and assess the extent of the negative impact the pandemic had had on the world of work and the degree of violation of employees’ rights. The authors also suggest ways to improve and supplement the existing labour law framework, which contains numerous legal gaps. Notable among these is the lack of definition and type of disputes that arise on the basis of the employment relationship. The aforementioned gaps facilitate illegal practices, especially regarding flexible forms of employment and generally frequent cases of illegal dismissal by the employer. The research has confirmed that courts of general jurisdiction are commonly overloaded with labour disputes. Therefore, establishing special basic and appellate labour courts merits further consideration. The authors conclude, with certain reservations, that the pandemic conditions did not cause an additional increase in pending cases in the labour disputes section. The disputes related to payment of the employee’s monetary claim against the employer are the exception since these disputes were the most frequent and significantly increased in number during 2020 and 2021.</p> Zoran Vavan, Tamara Gajinov, Marija Mijatović Copyright (c) 2023 Zoran Vavan, Gajinov Gajinov, Marija Mijatović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1492 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT AND ACTUALITY OF CHALLENGES, RISKS AND THREATS TO THE SECURITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1499 <p>Challenges, risks and threats to the security of the Republic of Serbia are defined by the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Serbia. However, the concept of security at the global level can be considered before and after beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Consequently, the question arises of the need to analyze the relevance of the existing interpretation of challenges, risks and threats to the security of the Republic of Serbia. The goal of the work was stated, and for this purpose the research was conducted using: survey methods (survey technique) and statistical methods, with the fact that in the research process it was inevitable to implement the methods of expert evaluations, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction. Respondents (experts) in the research were retired and active members of the military and civilian security services, members of the Committee for Defence and Security and the Committee for Control of Security Services of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia, diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Serbia and members of the academic community whose sphere of interest is security science. The research, at the level of scientific description, resulted in the following outcome, an expert analysis of the list of dangers to the security of the Republic of Serbia from the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Serbia was performed, and on the basis of which observed deficiencies can be eliminated. The analysis consisted of: checking the list of dangers according to changes in the strategic environment, determining their impact and selection by groups.</p> Nenad Kovačević, Nenad Komazec, Antonio Mak Copyright (c) 2023 Nenad Kovačević, Nenad Komazec, Antonio Mak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1499 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS OF VIOLENCE IN MARRIAGE AND PARTNER RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATIVE INCORPORATION https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1490 <p>The family has always been the basic cell of social life. The aim of this research is to point out some very important theoretical issues and how and to what extent they have been implemented in positive European legislation. Bearing in mind the aforementioned, the work is divided into two parts, the first of which deals with theoretical issues, starting with the consideration of the theory of sociological orientation, and at the end of this part, looking at aspects of feminist explanations. In the second part of the paper, the most important international documents on protection from violence in the family, in marriage and partner relationships were considered through the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union.</p> Danijela Puhača , Nenad Bingulac Copyright (c) 2023 Danijela Puhača , Nenad Bingulac https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1490 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 CHARACTERISTIC FORMS OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE INTERNET https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1498 <p>Today’s life is characterized by an extremely accelerated development of information and communication technologies. This technicaltechnological phenomenon, like any other phenomenon, has both positive and negative social implications. Its positive aspects are wellknown and are inevitably indisputable. However. as we mentioned, it also has negative sides. Within this work, the subject of analysis will be only one aspect of the negative side of the presence of information and communication technologies in today’s society, i.e. we will deal with the issue of the negative impact of information and communication technologies on one of the most vulnerable groups of our society - children. In this sense, we will analyze the international regulations that regulate the issue of child abuse on the Internet. When it comes to domestic regulations, the subject of the analysis will be focused on four characteristic forms of abuse of children on the Internet (trafficking, peer violence, so-called sexual deviations and theft of personal data), and within the framework of normative regulations that combat them, although above all they prevent such phenomena.</p> Siniša S. Domazet , Slavica S. Dinić, Emil M. Turković Copyright (c) 2023 Siniša S. Domazet , Slavica S. Dinić, Emil M. Turković https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1498 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE US TRADE AND TECHNOLOGY WAR AGAINST CHINA AND THE RESULTING GEOECONOMIC FRAGMENTATION: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS AND RISKS FOR THE GLOBAL ECONOMY https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1488 <p>The aim of the paper is to assess the possible consequences and risks for the global economy due to the increasingly pronounced geoeconomic fragmentation, dominantly determined by the trade and technological war of the US against China. Based on benchmark studies’ findings, we reason that decoupling and trade fragmentation could manifest through several main channels. These are, among other things: the slowdown in the growth of global trade, reduced migration, decreased FDI, and bans on the transfer of certain high technologies. In order to achieve the primary goal of the study, we suggested pragmatic ways to preserve as many of the benefits as possible resulting from trade openness, that is, international economic cooperation. First of all, in addition to more intensive communications of the main global economic actors, in which additional efforts would be made for compromise solutions along the lines of argumentation of the academic community and experts in relevant international institutions, the work of leading multilateral organizations should be revitalized, giving greater importance in their leadership to developing countries, especially China. In the end, we argue that, despite all the risks, it is not realistic that geo-economic fragmentation will lead to a significant decline in most types of economic cooperation at the global level since there are no valid (geopolitical) reasons why Western countries would stop importing price- and qualitatively competitive products from China. Instead, collaboration will primarily be reduced to a limited number of high-tech sectors, perceived in Washington, Brussels, and Beijing as strategically important.</p> Goran Nikolić, Jelena Zvezdanović Lobanova, Milan Zvezdanović Copyright (c) 2023 Goran Nikolić, Jelena Zvezdanović Lobanova, Milan Zvezdanović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1488 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100 REPORTING IN DAILY NEWSPAPERS IN SERBIA AND REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA IMMEDIATELY AFTER ACTS OF VIOLENCE: A CASE STUDY OF THE MASS MURDER AT VLADISLAV RIBNIKAR PRIMARY SCHOOL https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1497 <p>On the first day after the mass murder, a qualitative content analysis was conducted on nine daily newspapers in Republic of Srpska and Serbia. It aimed to determine the existence of similarities in the reporting of daily newspapers in the two countries, compare the existing reporting with current media regulations and self-regulation, identify any violations, and provide recommendations for future, more ethical reporting, given that a number of ethical lapses were observed in the reporting. The analysis of this event has both scientific and societal justification because the event impacted all members of society, and one of the tasks of science is to provide concrete advice on how to report ethically, professionally, and in accordance with recommendations and existing norms. Ethical lapses in the media can have consequences during times of crisis, shock, disbelief, panic and concern, which were understandably triggered in the audience, given that an event of this nature had not been recorded in our societies before.</p> Jovana Mlinarević Copyright (c) 2023 Jovana Mlinarević https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/1497 Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0100