KULTURA POLISA 2022-06-29T13:23:45+02:00 Željko Bjelajac Open Journal Systems CULTURE OF POLIS - Journal for Nurturing of Democratic Political Culture - is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal Violence as Social Phenomenon 2022-05-06T23:55:41+02:00 Petar S. Ćurčić Goran Nikolić <p>The aim of the article is to present violence as a social phenomenon by reviewing various sources from different disciplines (such as history, psychology, sociology etc.). As a phenomenon of extremely different duration, violence is extremely important not only in human evolution and history, but also in modern action. In the first part, special attention is paid to defining the concept of violence, and then its typology in the social context is presented. Violence has multiple causes. There are already problems in the definition, since some authors emphasize the physical character, while others believe that in addition to physical force, there are also emotional and spiritual factors of violence. On the one hand, scientists believe that it is conditioned by biological factors (primarily genetic and endocrinological). On the other hand, scientists, primarily from the social sciences, point out that this phenomenon is related not only to biological but also to social factors (poverty, culture, gender roles, etc.). There are different types of violence in societies. In addition to many forms of crime and domestic violence, a very important aspect is political violence perpetrated by state institutions and parastatal organizations (criminal, fundamentalist and terrorist groups). The paper also raises the question of whether violence declines over time due to various factors. Based on other papers, it was noticed that there are two schools of thought. According to a group of authors (such as Norbert Elias and Stephen Pinker), with the process of technological development and the spread of ideas, there is an undoubted decline in violence and today we live in the safest of all times. On the contrary, their critics point out that violence has not only not disappeared but has taken on new forms.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Petar Ćurčić, Goran Nikolić Etiological Aspects and Consequences of Violent Crime 2022-04-16T15:04:31+02:00 Maja Subotin Rade S. Bogojević <p>Violent crime is one of the oldest forms of criminality and has always been present in society. When all crime manifestations are considered, violent crime provokes the strongest reaction and the strongest condemnation of society, because it endangers human life as the most important human and social value, as well as property or other values and goods of the victim or society. In modern society, it is present all around us: in the family, school, work, street, games and various other events. Unlike the other forms of criminality, In this form of crime, the more significant perpetrator's tendency toward torture, as well as his insolence and ruthlessness in forcing another to suffer such behaviour come to the fore. The violent crime consequences can be extremely destructive and are reflected on the individual in the form of psychological, social and sexual problems, but also on his immediate environment and society as a whole through the deterioration of quality of life. That is why the suppression of violent crime is one of the primary tasks of every state, and the precondition for the realization of this task is to understand its etiological aspects in order to create effective prevention measures. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of creating preventive measures based on these factors, as well as the destructiveness of the consequences arising from this form of crime, through the analysis and systematization of knowledge regarding the causes of violent crime.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maja Subotin, Rade S. Bogojević Abuser Profile: Early Signs for Detection 2022-05-06T19:36:49+02:00 Željko Bjelajac <p>Violence is a complex social phenomenon that includes a wide range of manifestations. This phenomenon affects the lives of millions of people around the planet every day and causes damage to their physical and mental health, and its most severe forms often lead to loss of human lives. This paper aimed to point out the importance of profiling bullies in the context of early signs for detection of antisocial behaviour and preventive action in adolescence. It is actually a new way of reacting to make violence visible before it happens and challenge outdated approaches to intervention programs after its manifestation. The following methods were used: quantitative and qualitative content analysis, comparative analysis (reaction to violence) and descriptive and analytical statistics. The content is designed to better understand the impact of chronic exposure to violence, especially of children and women, in the social environment with the overarching goal of identifying flexible risk factors and protective factors that can be planned in prevention and intervention strategies, in pursuit of effective community response.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Željko Bjelajac Forms and Characteristics of Interpersonal Violence 2022-05-11T23:52:50+02:00 Boro Merdovic Rajka Vujović <p>Violence and aggression are terms often used in the literature to denote various forms of human behaviour. They represent destructive patterns of behaviour that harm the individual and society. Scientific understanding and explanation of violence is one of the basic scientific tasks which special attention needs to be paid to. Although violence can be considered a precise term, in reality, it represents a spectrum of heterogeneous forms of behaviour that can be physical and emotional with different reflections on the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator in specific life situations. The aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature to point out different definitions of violence and aggression with a special overview of interpersonal violence and its manifest. Special attention is paid to the division and categorization of violence and the consequences it has on the individual and his micro and macro social environment. One part of the paper is dedicated to domestic violence as a separate sociological, health and criminological problem and its negative implications for women, children and the elderly. The problem of violence within LGBT communities is also one of the topics of this paper, however the lack of proven scientific knowledge, research and data are still big.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Boro Merdovic, Rajka Vujović Domestic Violence – Certain Criminological and Criminal Law Aspects 2022-05-11T23:56:03+02:00 Jelena Matijašević Joko Dragojlović <p>Domestic violence as an act of expressing power and control over the victim within the family, in recent years has acquired the characteristics of a model of behavior, and as such is a very current subject of doctrinal analysis, but also behavior whose suppression is particularly interested in practice. In general, domestic violence as a contemporary social phenomenon has taken on much more significant proportions in society and has aroused far more significant public attention than other crimes against marriage and the family. When it comes to Serbia, there is a clear need to prevent domestic violence. Namely, the problem is very widespread and deeply rooted in the tradition of society, so it is primarily necessary to stabilize and build society on new values of nonviolence. Bearing in mind the topic, the paper deals with issues – what is domestic violence, who is the victim and who is the perpetrator of the crime of domestic violence, what is the purpose of the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence and other current legal solutions, to identify available protection measures and the procedures for ensuring their implementation.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jelena Matijašević, Joko Dragojlović Digital Violence Against Women: Exposure and Risks 2022-05-12T23:15:26+02:00 Aleksandar Filipović <p>In nature, and therefore in the human race, violence is one of the basic ways to achieve goals and show superiority. What separates people from animals is the organized social system in which they live and which they develop, one of whose basic functions is to protect every member of society from the evil that is immanent in human nature. The degree of civilization development can be measured both by the degree of protection of everyone from the violence of the stronger and by the degree of distribution of justice for all. Therefore, if we look at modern society, as well as its previous iterations, we can conclude that despite some progress, human civilization has not yet reached a satisfactory level. Technological development has brought many changes, and with all that is good and that has changed the way of life is lived, that development has at the same time acted as a catalyst for a problem that exists almost as long as human civilization, and that is violence against women, which in the digital age has taken on a new form we call digital violence. The aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants, status, prevalence, and forms of digital violence against women, with the basic hypothesis, that gender inequality, which is deeply rooted in human relations throughout history and present in almost every aspect of human life and activity, is a major cause of disparity in gender distribution of victims of digital violence.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aleksandar Filipović Istanbul Convention – Inglourious Tenth Anniversary 2022-05-06T13:19:05+02:00 Jelena Stojsic Dabetic <p>The tenth anniversary of the signing of the Istanbul Convention indicates a change in the attitude of the states that were its most ardent advocates at the time of its creation. The change in discourse resulted in Turkey's withdrawal from the Convention, and the emergence of new voices in the states, indicating the unwillingness to undertake social change, by invoking traditional family and intersex values. What is the biggest obstacle to further adoption of the Convention, despite the negative statistics regarding gender-based violence and domestic violence? The biggest obstacle, as defined in this article, is the new understanding of gender, as a socially defined category, which, however, greatly affects the generally accepted traditional social values. This paper aims to shed light on the possibilities for achieving the goals of the Convention in the light of (in)readiness to change the traditional social discourse.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jelena Stojsic Dabetic Femicide and Criminal Law Reaction: Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights 2022-05-15T15:46:15+02:00 Milica Kovačević <p>In recent decades, the scientific and professional public have been intensively dealing with the phenomenon of femicide as the most extreme type of gender based violence. At the moment, it is indisputable that states have a number of complex obligations to which they must adequately respond when it comes to protecting women's lives. Thus, the question naturally arises as to what form of criminal law reaction requires the gender-motivated murder of a woman, and whether it is necessary to introduce a special incrimination that would refer exclusively to femicide. Having in mind the above, the paper is designed so that after some general considerations on the concept and nature of femicide, an analysis of the positive legal framework related to the murder of women in Serbia follows. Referring to the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights in cases related to state failures in the field of guaranteeing the right to life, the author concludes that adequate protection can also be achieved within the legal system that does not incriminate murder of women as a special crime femicide, but only if there is an effective system for preventing and sanctioning gender-based violence and discriminatory treatment of women. The normative dogmatic method has been applied with an analytical-synthetic approach, while the aim of the paper is to formulate recommendations for improving the legislative framework and practice.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Milica Kovačević Media Treatment of Violence Against Women in Serbia 2022-05-14T15:51:44+02:00 Rajka Vujović Aleksandar Filipović <p>One of the basic functions of the media is to timely and truthfully inform citizens about things that have happened outside their perceptual reach. Other, higher social functions are upgraded to this basic function, by means of which the media can directly or indirectly influence social flows and phenomena by the presence, manner, value, and ethical qualifications inserted in the information distributed by the media. Violence against women has been a negative phenomenon of human civilization almost since its beginnings, that is, since the end of matriarchy. The main reason for that is the perception of men as in every sense a superior being over a woman, and the stereotypes, habits, and customs resulting from such a perception. Despite the obvious progress of civilization, in a large part of the world, the identical pattern of male-female relations that was established several thousand years ago is still dominant today. However, modern societies with higher level of human development try to correct many inherited social injustices, of which the unequal position of women from which the disproportionate amount of violence against them arises is one of the most important. In these social correction s, the media, as the wielders of enormous social power, have a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to research how the media report on violence against women with special emphasis on the media in Serbia. The basic hypothesis of this paper is that the media do not use all their functions, or do not use them in the most appropriate way and that because of certain media dysfunction, the problem of violence against women often has a sensationalist and tabloid portrayal in the media, which leads to the creation of new difficulties instead of contributing to problem-solving.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rajka Vujović, Aleksandar Filipović Peer Violence as a Form of Social Destruction 2022-05-15T15:48:26+02:00 Željko Ninčić <p>Every act of violence carries a certain destructive "potential" which effect depends, both on the form of its manifestation as well as on the "sensitivity of the target" to which it is directed. Such acts represent various forms of social destruction where, surely, peer violence has a special place. This "uniqueness" is reflected in the sensitivity of the population that is a participant in this form of violence. It is, most often, the school population, young people who are in the most important period of their physical, emotional, intellectual, and cultural development. Therefore, peer violence can have a decisive impact on their overall development, regardless of whether they participate as perpetrators or are victims of such violence. The aim of this paper is to point out the problem of peer violence, the difficulty of identifying various forms as well as the seriousness of the consequences that peer violence can have on both the victim and the perpetrator. By analyzing various contents, which subject is research on peer violence, using the methods of induction and deduction, the author seeks to identify those elements of peer violence that, with an adequate social reaction, would have a decisive influence on reducing its destructive character. The paper emphasizes the necessity of terminological delimitation of certain terms that are used as synonyms for defining violence. It points out the phenomenon of peer violence, its types and the risk factors that determine it. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of society in preventing peer violence, and the necessity for various mechanisms to recognize it and prevent its negative effects. It is especially pointed out that the determination of the society to face peer violence is a fundamental prerequisite for its suppression.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Željko Ninčić Understanding Colective Violence 2022-05-14T15:43:07+02:00 Mina Zirojevic Ivana Spaić <p>Human history is closely connected to violence escalations. Although every generation expects humankind’s progress in all fields to bring awareness of global peace, violence is becoming more diverse and is quickly developing in the number of people participating in collective violence activities and in the way such aggression manifests. We, however, believe these acts of violence to be mostly caused, on one side, either by need for new inter-block division or to maintain hegemony, while on the other side they are an individual’s or group’s reaction in fight against inequality and injustice. It is also useful to recognise that what people see as violence has the tendency to be culturally endangered. Separation of state from church gave religion a new dimension in connection to its influence on state policies, and also offered a model for political entities to sacralise their power, as firm basis to build totalitarian regimes, which are characterised by collective violence. As a rule, violence breeds news violence, whether it is a response or fulfilling ambitions to expand power. Collective violence could be instigated by political, religious or other social violence. Understanding circumstances under which violence begins and develops can decrease the probability of it being used, especially when it comes to collective violence. In relation to this, our aim for this paper was to use methods of compilation and content analysis and therefore single out main causes of collective violence, which has led us to conclude that by identifying and understanding them on time we may decrease the possibility of violence being used with such scope and intensity to cause the heaviest consequences.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mina Zirojevic, Ivana Spajić Violence at Sports Events: Analysis of Students’ Attitudes 2022-05-06T19:42:09+02:00 Božidar Banović Veljko Turanjanin <p>Violence at sports events is not a new phenomenon. The ways in which states oppose this form of violence are different and vary from state to state, undertaking different types of preventive and repressive actions. Youth hooliganism at sports events has become a regular occurrence, which is more and more seen at sports events. Hooligans do not come to sports events to support the club and enjoy sports, but because of the opportunity to behave violently. To determine students' attitudes about violence at sports events, we surveyed students of the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Security. The questionnaire was completed by 177 students. The results of the research were compared with the research that was conducted in 2013 among high school students. The results of the research show that students are to some extent familiar with the problem of violence at sports events, but also that they do not have a favourable attitude towards police activities, although in the percentage they did not have strong points of contact with this phenomenon. The research showed that it is necessary to continue working on the education and training of young people since they still do not have sufficiently developed knowledge in this area.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Božidar Banović, Veljko Turanjanin Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the Function of Recognizing Emotions and Violent Mentality 2022-05-28T23:56:22+02:00 Momčilo Bajac Željko Bjelajac <p>In this paper, we discuss the impact of the latest technologies, primarily artificial intelligence (AI), on the wider social and natural environment, as well as on the individual lives of people in an increasing range of contexts. We talk about AI as complex ecosystems made up of natural resources, energy, human labour, infrastructure, logistics, history, data, and a multitude of classifications. Even though for now, AI is neither artificial nor as intelligent as it is presented to the general public, there is a strong desire for its universalization and absolutization. In this paper, we have specifically discussed the possibility of applying AI to recognize emotions and violent mentality to prevent violent behaviour. This required an analysis of the practice of collecting data and classifying them into fixed categories in order to achieve “reliable” search outputs for different needs. The profile of a violent personality is determined by both social-relational and biological-psychological characteristics, which represents a large number of variables that should be taken into account when constructing an algorithm for recognizing emotions and violent personality. We conclude that with the current level of AI development and very reduced and discrete algorithms, it is not possible to take into account enough data to obtain a reliable way to predict behaviour and take possible measures without discrimination and danger to individuals and society as a whole. But given the incredibly rapid technological development, especially in the field of quantum computing, this field faces a very dynamic future.</p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Momčilo Bajac, Željko Bjelajac