KULTURA POLISA 2023-08-03T18:56:45+02:00 Željko Bjelajac Open Journal Systems CULTURE OF POLIS - Journal for Nurturing of Democratic Political Culture - is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF PLAYING VIDEO GAMES WITH EXPLICIT VIOLENCE ON PLAYER AGGRESSION 2023-05-21T13:10:11+02:00 Aleksandar Filipović <p>Video games have become the most significant phenomenon of popular culture, and one of the most widespread forms of entertainment in society of the Industrial Revolution 4.0. This prevalence corresponds with profitability, and the video game industry records the highest revenues in the cultural and entertainment industries. Simultaneously, the level of the scientific study of the phenomenon and its impact remains disproportionately small, while moral panic and the banalized and oversimplified accusation of video games for causing violence and evil in people are the dominant social attitude and reaction. That is why the influence of playing violent video games on the development of aggression and violent behavior in individuals has been thoroughly researched. While some studies indicate that gaming has no effect at all, or even a cathartic effect, others claim that playing violent video games is associated with increased aggression and antisocial behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of explicit violence in video games on the aggressiveness and violence of players of such games. Using various analytical methods, by exploring stereotypes, cultural factors, and the potential negative effects of playing violent video games, this comprehensive analysis challenges the incorrect preconception that video games inherently encourage real-world violence. While acknowledging certain negative effects like the promotion of a culture of competitive militarism and desensitization to violence in the real world, this paper recommends responsible gaming, parental control and guidance, and positive social influence as crucial factor in shaping moral attitudes and behavior.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aleksandar Filipović CYBERBULLYING: BETWEEN THE VIRTUAL AND THE REAL 2023-06-06T12:06:21+02:00 Slavimir Vesić Martin Bjelajac <p>In modern society, the use of information communication technologies and digital services is intensifying. The post-Covid-19 era brings many changes in all social spheres and stands out for its unprecedented reliance on digital technologies. Younger generations, who have had intensive interaction with them since the earliest days, are finding their place in the cyber world and, in this way, are increasingly erasing the boundaries between the real and the digital. Vulnerability of human life is one of the characteristics of cyber security and as a very complex phenomenon that is fully justified to be studied in a multidisciplinary manner. Cyberbullying is a widespread phenomenon, most often expressed among the younger population, which can produce great negative consequences for an individual, and even the loss of human life. In addition to the fact that it is necessary to work on raising awareness and pointing out the unsafe cyberspace in which interaction and communication take place, it is necessary to give an adequate response from the aspect of education and information security culture in order to preserve what is most valuable. This paper aims to present and offer some answers to the mentioned phenomenon.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Slavimir Vesić, Martin Bjelajac PROHIBITIONS OF MINOR MARRIAGES 2023-04-09T22:15:03+02:00 Milan Počuča Krstinić Dalibor Nebojša Šarkić <p>In the national marriage legislation, minors belong to the group of material restrictions for entering into a valid marriage. From the aspect of human rights, underage marriage is recognized as a form of genderbased discrimination against girls and boys. Minority, as an element concerning the status of a natural person, is perceived as a certain preparatory phase of life characterized by a lack of intellectual and volitional maturity, as well as the absence of life experience, which affects the prevention of minors from independently protecting their rights and interests. The above is one of the reasons why we believe it is of great importance, in the normative sense, to fully protect, that is, to prohibit the conclusion of underage marriages. The aim of this paper is to indicate the international standards in this area, as well as the need for reform in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, in terms of the prohibition of underage marriages and their harmful consequences for the persons who conclude them.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Milan Počuča, Krstinić Dalibor, Nebojša Šarkić WHOSE MARGIN OF APPRECIATION? ANALYZING ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS JURISPRUDENCE 2023-06-07T19:41:32+02:00 Aleksandar Todorović <p>In legal theory but also in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, there is an undisputed consensus that the margin of appreciation represents a certain “room for manoeuvre” that the Court grants to national authorities when assessing their behaviour before it is prepared to find that a violation of rights has indeed occurred. Moreover, it is often argued in legal theory that the margin of appreciation is a method of interpreting the Convention. Although these claims are widely accepted and well-founded, in recent years, various authors in legal theory have increasingly put forward assertions that the margin of appreciation has another “hidden” role in the Court's case law, namely, that it is a judicial tool through which the Court increasingly tries to create room for manoeuvre in decision-making. In this paper, the author will build on this theory of the margin of appreciation as a judicial tool aimed at giving the Court room for manoeuvre. The goal of the paper is to test the thesis on the margin of appreciation as a judicial tool aimed at leaving a certain maneuvering space for the Court itself in decisionmaking, using the method of conceptual analysis and the case study method. Following that, the author will approach the analysis of factors that provide an explanation for why the idea of leaving maneuvering space for the Court itself in decision-making and argumentation may be appealing to the Court.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aleksandar Todorović AN OLD ENEMY IN A NEW GUISE: THE ARMED FORCES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES 2023-06-06T21:11:57+02:00 Vanja Rokvić Ivan Dimitrijević <p>COVID-19 seemingly opened the issue of the militarisation of health, primarily due to the war narrative which accompanied crisis communication during the pandemic from its very beginning, but also due to the specific engagement of the armed forces in facing the various challenges that the pandemic posed to almost all countries of the world over time. However, as it usually happens during events that affect the entire planet, collective memory and historical knowledge become the first victims, and all possible historical parallels with previous, same or similar, situations and difficulties are erased from people's memories. The purpose of this review is to clearly indicate that infectious diseases are not a “new enemy”, that the role of the armed forces has been constant since the first recorded global infections, and that the armed forces have played a major role throughout modern history in developing ways and measures for repressing infectious diseases. Precisely taking into account the importance of the armed forces during pandemics of infectious diseases, we decided to choose three pandemics that left an indelible mark on the history of three different centuries - the Russian flu, the Spanish flu and the COVID-19, with special reference to the documented experiences of the armed forces of Serbia in selected periods. Literature review and content analysis of original and peerreviewed academic articles, institutional reports and media articles have been used for the purposes of preparing this review article.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vanja Rokvić, Ivan Dimitrijević COUPLING CULTURE AND SPACE FOR THE POSTGROWTH 2023-06-04T00:08:52+02:00 Vanja Vujanović Milica Kočović De Santo <p>This study explores why there is a fundamental need to integrate cultural, urban, and spatial planning. We also argue for a stronger linkage of degrowth with cultural and spatial studies to achieve urgent developmental transformations. In this study, we aim to highlight three of the most important considerations as possible steps towards various future systemic solutions, considering the historical background on development, ideology, power, culture, city, economy and other relevant policies. 1) The importance of participatory strategies and inclusive approaches in promoting various cultural and urban policies (based on practices as shown in cases) as essential for the future; 2) Embedding degrowth discussions in the fields of space and culture aims to highlight multiple alternative paths that can be taken to address systemic issues; 3) Theories of cultural and urban participation crossed with practise provide a strategic framework to explore possibilities.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Vanja Vujanović, Milica Kočović De Santo IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING REGULATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA ON THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PURPOSES 2023-06-06T12:25:31+02:00 Danijela M. Andjelković Jelena Vapa Tankosić Ana S. Liberakos <p>The main purpose of the new accounting regulation that has been applied in the Republic of Serbia is the harmonization and improvement of the quality of financial reports for the needs of company management and external users of information (primarily, investors and creditors). Based on the above, the main goal of the research in this paper is to indicate whether the financial statements in the Republic of Serbia, which are based on the project of the Board for the Application of International Accounting Standards (IASB), can be compared with the financial statements in the European Union, and whether on that basis represent reliable informational support for strategic management. The research findings show that the immediate and exclusive application of IFRS in the Republic of Serbia has become a limiting factor in the informational power of financial reports for the purposes of strategic management. Based on the obtained research findings, it is possible to conclude that the accounting profession is to a greater extent dedicated to the traditional, classic requirements of the accounting function related to the preparation of financial statements, cost-financial control, while it is to a lesser extent dedicated to strategic management.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Danijela M. Andjelković, Jelena Vapa Tankosić, Ana S. Liberakos THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CAPITAL PROJECT REALIZATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 2023-05-24T21:17:57+02:00 Snezana Lakićević Bojan Grebić <p>Given the importance of capital projects regarding socio-economic development and societal progress in general, this paper focuses on the analysis and enhancement of the legal framework for the capital project realization in the public sector of the Republic of Serbia. Capital projects that are financed or co-financed from national revenue, European Union funds, and funds of international institutions and other countries are subject to strict legislation that more closely regulates different segments, thus creating a general legal framework for the capital project realization. In the Republic of Serbia, there are laws, regulations and rules that directly or indirectly relate to the realization of capital projects, the most important of which are the Budget System Law, the Law on Public Procurement, the Decree on Capital Project Management, and regulations on special procedures within the framework of capital project management. Taking into account their importance and effectiveness, supported by a more or less appropriate institutional framework, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the state of the legal framework and the possibility of its enhancement in accordance with the prevailing trends and examples of good practice in project management. The paper also presents potential solutions for the transformation of planning, organizing, implementing, and monitoring the progress of capital projects, i.e., identifies opportunities for improving the current situation through the centralization of responsibility for management, evaluation, and audit of capital projects, on the one hand, and legal regulation, personnel training and provision of strategic projects, on the other. Therefore, the paper's most important contribution is reflected in the removal of existing obstacles and the increase in the degree of efficiency in the realization of capital projects based on a better and more adequate legal and methodological framework.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Snezana Lakićević , Bojan Grebić REGULATION IN THE BANKING SECTOR OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND DEPOSIT INSURANCE SYSTEMS 2023-06-06T10:23:33+02:00 Žaklina Spalević Snježana Stanišić <p>Problems in the bank's operations, regardless of its size, are reflected in the overall financial system in which losses can occur, unless the state does not prevent the disruptive influence of the problematic bank at the level of the overall banking sector in a timely manner. One of the ways to prevent possible problems in the financial system of a state is to conduct supervision of the bank's operations. A safe and transparent banking system affects the increase of savers who decide to invest their capital in banks. Monitoring of bank's operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not carried out only by supervisory and regulatory bodies. Banks are obliged, according to Basel II, to publish general information about the adequacy of capital and its structure, about exposure to risks such as market, card, operational, interest rate risk. Within the banking sector it is possible to identify some of the sources of their weaknesses, such as: inadequate bank management structure, the presence of implicit or explicit forms of government guaranteeing deposits, lack of information on the financial position and status of the bank due to the application of inadequate accounting standards.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Žaklina Spalević , Snježana Stanišić THE STONE OF THE IRON ROAD – A FORGOTTEN LEGACY 2023-05-23T18:00:58+02:00 Milan Stanković Dejan Dašić <p>While the twenty-first century is moving into its third decade and the whistle of the steam locomotive rumbles with the longing of the youth of Generation X into final oblivion, except for rare performances of railway romance or nostalgia, exclusively commercial impulses, stone, as an omitted element of the industrial revolution, deserves a specific review. The aim of the paper is to point out the inevitable changes initiated by new technologies and the neoliberal concept. Historical method, descriptive analysis and secondary sources are used in the paper. The locomotive brought together more people than all the poets, writers, philosophers of earlier centuries, it “carries the industrial revolution”, gets its place of honor, often synonymous with economic progress locomotion mobile; in the case of the poet, he even breathes, breathes tensely, as if he has been waiting for a long time to leave, he often exudes brilliance even when he stops (standing) still. At the same time, the stone that carries it, without which there can be neither it, nor its railway, industry, economy, world, neoliberal paradigm... a complete two centuries carries an ordinary, non-sacred, almost unsightly, contemporary stone, which is like Andrić's symbolism the stone in the bridge, instead of someone else, sacrificed himself here.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dejan Dašić, Milan Stanković LOCUS STANDI OF THE RIGHT TO AN ADEQUATE ENVIRONMENT – UNIVERSAL AND REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS MECHANISMS 2023-06-06T20:00:43+02:00 Marijana Mladenov Nenad Stefanović Svetlana Marković <p>Despite that the right to an adequate environment is an integral part of international law for more than 50 years, there are still numerous challenges to its effective judicial protection. Among the issues affecting the right is proper entitlement to raise a claim with respect to the right, as well as those relating to justiciability, procedure, interpretation and effective remedies. In light of the aforementioned, the paper will contribute to the ongoing discussion by providing analysis and insights into the main features, admissibility criteria, and compliance procedures related to the right to an adequate environment before international and regional judicial and quasi-judicial entities. The scope of the paper is to clarify how the right to an adequate environment can be assessed in regard to effective judicial protection, legal remedies applied and, consequently, the coherence that the judicial brings to the global legal order.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marijana Mladenov, Nenad Stefanović, Svetlana Marković ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES AS RISK FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUBSTANCE ADDICTION 2023-05-16T18:27:23+02:00 Dragica Bogetić Aleksandar Jugović Boro Merdović <p>Research indicates that the likelihood of developing addiction increases with the number of adverse childhood experiences [ACE]. ACE are common precursors to early initiation of psychoactive substance use [PAS], significantly increasing the risk of substance abuse and faster progression to substance addiction [SA]. ACE are associated with a more severe course of addiction, poorer treatment outcomes, and higher rates of relapse after treatment completion. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the link between ACE and the development of psychoactive substance dependence during adulthood, through the method of analysis and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research. The theoretical framework of the paper is based on the theories of cumulative inequality and trauma, which provide overarching postulates for interpreting the link between childhood adversity and SA, and offer conceptual insights into understanding the detrimental effects of ACE on the biopsychosocial development of individuals. This approach challenges the traditional notions of addiction as a “personal choice”, “moral irresponsibility”, “circumstantial coincidence”, or “genetic predisposition”. The paper provides guidelines that emphasise the need for an integrative approach in addressing trauma and addiction, as well as a holistic approach to individuals undergoing addiction treatment.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dragica Bogetić, Aleksandar Jugović, Boro Merdović PARTICIPATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INIDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN 2023-06-10T22:43:32+02:00 Elvira Rajšli - Tokoš <p>The usefulness of individual education plans (IEP) is undeniable for students, parents and teachers/special education teachers. In addition to development (team cooperation), and implementation, the participation of students with disabilities and developmental disorders is essential. According to modern literature, only the participation of students and self-directed IEP meetings provide various benefits (development of self-evaluation skills, self-advocacy, and probability of motivation to achieve the goals planned in the IEP, etc.). The aim of the paper is to examine teachers and special education teachers about the participation and role of students in the first meeting of the IEP team. Additionally, to determine the differences in relation to the experience of working with students with developmental disorders and the educational profile of experts. This research included 131 respondents (94 teachers and 37 special education teachers) from various regular and special secondary schools. The research was conducted online through “Google Forms”, the data was collected through the questionnaire IEP Implementation Rating Scale – IEP IRS without the influence of the examiner. Based on the results, we concluded that students are often absent from the first IEP meeting, while teachers/special education teachers and parents are present. In this research, experience in working with students with developmental disorders was not significantly associated with student participation. However, differences in the educational profile are noted, special education teachers have a leading role and the participation of students with disabilities and disorders in development is modest.</p> 2023-08-03T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Elvira Rajšli - Tokoš