• Marko Krstić Полицијска управа Шабац


espionage, international law, international laws, international conflicts


Espionage has become a complex process that takes place in different areas, and not only between the feuding countries in terms of political opponents, but also between those who are friendly with each other. Filled with paradoxes and contradictions, espionage continues to occupy an ambivalent place in international law with which it is in a disharmonious relationship. This paper will examine how international law is engaged in activities related to espionage, and will also present the basic principles and phenomenology of this controversial phenomenon. The author of this paper will consider espionage from the perspective of international law, because its concept in the framework of international laws is a comprehensive preventive definition of espionage, which can be generalized to all its modalities. The context in which espionage is mentioned in international law is the firstly discussion of spyware armed conflicts that were long debated, but nevertheless, espionage from the spatial and temporal aspects of addiction varies from case to case.


Download data is not yet available.


Allen A. (2008). The virtuous spy: privacy as an ethical limit, Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series Research Paper No. 07-34

Baheri Z., Fard A., S. (2015). Status of espionage from the perspective of international laws with emphasis on countries' diplomatic and consular relations.Journal of Scientific Research and Development 2 (1): 41-45,

Baker, C. D. (2003). "Tolerance of International Espionage: A Functional Approach." American University International Law Review 19, no. 5: 1091-1113

Benny, D. (2004). Espionage Prevention And Investigation Private Investigator and Security Consultant,

Black D. The winding, bumpy road from espionage to intelligence.

Boar R., Blundel N. (1986). Najveći svetski špijuni i obaveštajci, London,

Brown C. (1999). Espionage in International Law: A Necessary Evil Faculty of Law University of Western Ontario, 1-31

Charney D., Irvin J. (2014). Guide to the Psychology of Espionage. Article will appear in a future edition of AFIO's Intelligencer Journal

Clark R. (1998). “The Corruption of Covert Actions,”Covert Action Quarterly, 7–8.

Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October 1907.

Craig F. (2013). The federal court's prescience: spy ing and international law,

Deeks, E. (2015). An international legal framework for surveillance. Virginia journal of international law. Vol. 55:2, 292-368

Falk, R. (1962). Essays on espionage and international law, at v (Roland J. Stanger ed.

Farago L. (1961). Burn After Reading. The Espionage History Of World War II Published 196.

Gertz B. (2002). “Face of U.S. Espionage Changing; Women, Foreign-Born Citizens Increasingly Used as Spies,” Washington Times, A06

Grosso A. (2000). “The Economic Espionage Act: Touring the Minefields,” Communications of the ACM,vol. 43, 15.

Hall W., E. (1895). A Treatise on International Law, (London, Henry Frowde and Stevens and Sons, Limited, 1895) Section 188, 559.

Halleck H.W. (1878). International Law; or, Rules Regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War 406 (1st ed. 1878), vol. 2, London

Hansen A. (2014). Contemporary model united nations, espionage Disarmament and International Security NUMUN Northvestern University, 2-13

Kapp M. (2007). Spying for Peace: Explaining the Absence of the Formal Regulation of Peacetime Espionage, The university of Chicago.

Kuromiia H. (2009). Stalin ’s great terror and espionage, The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research University of Washington

Lefever E. F. (2003) “The Essential CIA,” American Legion Magazine, 36–38

Manual for Courts Martial United States (2012) 30. Article 106—Spies a. Text of statute.

Milošević M. (2001). Sistem državne bezbednosti, Policijska akademija, Beograd,

Openhajm LL. D. (1905). International law a treatise, Vol. 1, Peace longmans, greeen and Co. Paternoster row, London, New York and Bombay

Papandrea M.R. (2014). Leaker traitor whistleblower spy: national security leaks and the first amendment, Boston university law review Vol. 94:449 -554.

Radsan J. (2007). The unresolved equation of espionage and international law. No. 75 Michigan Journal of International Law Vol. 28, 596-623

Shelby R. (2001). “Intelligence and Espionage in the Twenty-First Century,” Heritage Lectures,

Spotlight on spies (1949). By United States Congress. House. Committee on UnAmerican Activities

Stjernfelt F. (2003). The ontology of espionage in reality and fiction:A case study on iconicity partment of Comparative Literature, University of Copenhagen, Sign Systems Studies, 134-162

Willijams R. (2011). Spy Game Change:Cyber Networks, Intelligence Collection, and Covert Action, Vol. 79 No. 4, 1162-1199.

Wood S., Wiskoff M. (1992). Americans who spied against their country since World war II , Defense Personnel Security Research Center, 1-31

Wright Q. (1962). Espionage and the Doctrine of Non-Intervention in Internal Affairs,in Essays on espionage and international law 3, 12 (Roland J. Stanger ed., 1962); see alsoIngrid Delupis, Foreign Warships and Immunity for Espionage

Aleksić Ž., Škulić M., Žarković M. (2004). Leksikon kriminalistike, „Živojin Aleksić“, Beograd.

Avramov S., Kreća R. (1999). Međunarodno javno pravo, Savremena administacija, Beograd,

Bošković M. (1998). Kriminalistika – metodika 1, Policijska akademija, Beograd

Bošković Milo. (1995). Kriminologija i socijalna patologija, Matica srpska, Novi Sad,

Bošković Milo. (1998). Kriminološki leksikon, Matica srpska i Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Novi Sad,

Đorđević O. (1978). Šta je to špijunaža, Politika, Beograd,

Jovanović Lj., Jovašević D. (1995). Krivično pravo - posebni deo, Policijska akademija, Beograd,

Lukić D. (1982). Savremena špijunaža, Privredna štampa, Beograd, 1982,

Mijalković S. (2010). Nacionalna bezbednost, Kriminalističko-policijska akademija, Beograd,

Milašinović R. (1996). Američki pohod na svet, „ZAD“, Beograd,

Milutinović M. (1973). Kriminologija, Savremena administracija, Beograd,

Openhajm L. (1905). International law - a treatise, London, New York [etc.] Longmans, Green, and co. vol. 1-2, 191.

Politika tajne. (2007). Tajna služba, služba državne bezbednosti, Narodna biblioteka Srbije, Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju, Beograd,

Stojanović Z. (2012). Komentar krivičnog zakona, četvrto dopunjeno izdanje, „Službeni glasnik“, Beograd




How to Cite

Krstić, M. . (2016). ESPIONAGE FROM THE VIEW OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. KULTURA POLISA, 13(31), 331–344. Retrieved from



Review Article