REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN SUICIDE TERRORISM
Keywords:globalization, international terrorism, security, global society
In recent years it has become the current debate about gender convergence in criminal areas, though many more men than women continue to be engaged in criminal activities. In relation to the participation of women in suicide attacks, appeared in numerous publications that explore this theme, which contributed valuable, non-integrated knowledge and spreading in many disciplines. Although men are conventional and traditionally seen as the leaders of the armed rebellion, women today are increasingly becoming a key strategic asset in the field of suicide terrorism. This paper will attempt to overcome this stereotypical impressions, and examine some of the structural conditions that play a decisive role for women to engage in acts of violence. Female suicide attacks are more deadly than those carried out by men. Also, are also considered particularly shocking because such actions violate gender norms and stereotypes of companies from which the attackers came from. Participation of women in terrorism through the prism of the media and policy-makers makes it look as if it were a recent phenomenon, but history shows that their participation was present from the very beginning historical .
Ahmed H. (2010). The Growing Threat of Female Suicide Attacks in Western Countries. Vol3 . Issue7 CTS SENTNEL
Alison M. (2003). Women in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Civil Wars, Vol.6, No.4 (Winter 2003), pp.37—54 ISSN 1369-8249 print/ISSN 1743-968X online DOI:10.1080/1369824042000221367
Becker K. (2014). A Ticking Time Bomb- The Phenomenon of Female Suicide Bombers/ April 29, 2014 Originally published December 2013
Bloom, M. (2005). “Mother, Daughter, Sister, Bomber,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (November/ December 2005)
Bloom, M. (2008). Women as Victims and Victimizers. April 11, 2008.
Bongar, Bruce, et al. (eds.) (2007).Psychology of Terrorism New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. 492p.
Brunner, C. (2005). "Female Suicide Bombers-Male Suicide Bombers? Looking for Gender in Reporting the Suicide Bombings of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." Global Society 19,no. 1 (2005): 29-48
Burton F. and Stewart S. (2007). On the Cusp: The Next Wave of Female Suicide Bombers? Security Weekly September19, 2007 | 17:56 GMT
Campaniello N. (2014). Women in crime-Over the last 50 years women have been increasing their participation in the labor market and in the crime market IZA Wrld of Labor 2014: 105 d o i: 10.1518 5/ i z aw o l.105
Cragin K. and Sara A. (2015). Women as Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters and Martyrs by International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 5, No. 6(1); June 2015 115
Crenshaw М. (2007). Explaining Suicide Terrorism: A Review Essay, Security Studies, No. 1, 133–162. DOI: 10.1080/09636410701304580
Crenshaw, M. (2000). The Psychology of Terrorism: An Agenda for the 21st Century Political Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 2. (Jun., 2000), pp. 405-420.
Cronin, K. (2003). Terrorists and Suicide Attacks, CRS Report for Congress
De Mel, N, (2004), Body Politics: (Re)Cognising the Female Suicide Bomber in Sri Lanka, Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 11, 75-93.
Evelin G. (2001). Women and terrorism: The lessons of humiliation. In New Routes: A Journal for Peace Research and Action. Special Issue: Targeting Women, 6 (3), 10-12, see full text in www.life-peace.org.
Freedom O., Temilola G. (2015). Boko Haram’s use of Female Suicide Bombing in Nigeria, 2015, http://studies.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2015/3/18/20153189319985734Boko-Harams-Female.pdf
Grimland, Apter A.,Kerkhof A. Feinberg A. (2006). A Review of Psychological and Nonpsychological Factors Child Study Center, Schneider’s Children’sMedical Center of Israel, Sackler School of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv, Israel, 2Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Crisis 2006; Vol. 27(3):107–118 DOI 10.1027/0227-5910.27.3.107
Jacques K. , Taylor P. (2013). Law and Human Behavior © 2012 American sychological Association 2013, Vol. 37, No. 1, 35–44DOI: 10.1037/h0093992Myths and Realities of Female-Perpetrated Terrorism Lancaster University
Jacques Kand Taylor J. (2009). Female Terrorism: A Review Article in Terrorism and Political Violence, Journal of International Women's Studies Volume 9 | Issue1 Article 3
Jordan, Kim and Denov, Myriam (2007). Birds of Freedom? Perspectives on Female Emancipation and Sri Lanka’s Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Journal of International Women's Studies, 9(1), 42-62.
Kat J. (2008). The Rise of Female Suicide Bombers Sparks a Range of Reactions August 29, 2008 08:00 AM by International http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/international/Aug-08/The-Rise-of-FemaleSuicide-Bombers-Sparks-a-Range-of-Reactions-.html
Kemoklidze, N. (2009) "Victimisation of Female Suicide Bombers: The Case of Chechnya", Caucasian Review of International Affairs, 3(2), [online]., Available from http://www.cria-online.org/7_6.html [Accessed 26th September 2014]
Martin M.(2009). Women’s participation in terrorism, conflict and violent extremism: Gender equality or pure pragmatism? Religion Compass 4/4 (2010): 234–244, 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00206.x Suicide Terrorism
Melissa T. (2008). “Gender, Mental Illness, and Crime” National Institute of Justice Final Technical Report http://articles.latimes.com/2008/aug/21/world/fg-women21 (accessed April 13,
Myers, K. (2002). "The Terrible Sight of a Female Terrorist." The Telegraph. October
, 2002. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/personal-view/3583369/The-terriblesight-of-a- female-terrorist.html (accessed April 13, 2009).
Nacos B. (2005) The Portrayal of Female Terrorists in the Media:Similar Framing Patterns in the News Coverage of Women in Politics and in Terrorism, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28:5, 435-451, DOI: 10.1080/10576100500180352
O‘Conner (2008). Picked Last: Women in Terrorism.ǁ Joint Forces Quarterly 44, 1st Quarter (2008): 95-100.
O’Rourke, L. (2009). “What’s Special about Female Suicide Terrorism?” Security Studies 18:4
Reid, M. (2002). “Myth that Women are the Most Deadly Killers of All,” Herald (Glasgow), January 29, 2002, sec. A, p.14, database on-line; available from Lexis-Nexis; accessed September 5, 2003
Sanтala J. Dangerous Obscurity: A Study of the Female Suicide Combatants of Sri Lanka Bemidji State University
Schweitzer, Y. (2006). Palestinian female suicide bombers: Reality vs. myth. In Y. Schweitzer (Ed.), Female suicide bombers: Dying forequality? (pp. 25–41). Tel Aviv, Israel: Jaffee Centre for Strategic Studies. Retrieved from http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/memoranda/ memo84.pdf
Speckhard A. (2015). Female Terrorists in ISIS, Al Qaeda and 21rst Century Terrorism Trends Research & Advisory
Speckhard, A. & Akhmedova, K. (2006) “Black Widows: The Chechen Female Suicide Terrorists, in Yoram Schweitzer ed. Female Suicide Terrorists Jaffe Center Publication, Tel Aviv, Israel
Stern, J. (2003). “When Bombers are Women,” The Washington Post, 18 December .
Sutten, M, (2009), The Rising Importance of Women in Terrorism and the Need to Reform Counterterrorism Strategy, United States Army, Monograph, www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA506225
The Roles Of Women In Terrorism Criminology Essay Published: 23, March 2015. https://www.ukessays.com/essays/criminology/the-roles-of-women-in-terrorismcriminology-essay.php
Zavis, A. (2008). "Grooming a Female Suicide Bomber." The Los Angeles Times. August 21, 2008. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/aug/21/world/fg-women21 (accessed April 13, 2009).
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.