CIVIL SERVANT’S LEGISLATION AND EDUCATION IN SERBIA FROM 1804 UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY

Authors

  • Dušan M. Blagojević Криминалистичко – полицијски Универзитет Београд

Keywords:

civil service legislation, civil service system, civil servant education, public administration, European integration, administrative law, officials

Abstract

Through the first part of the paper, the author show the gradual emergence of a civil service apparatus that, after initial, unsuccessful attempts, began to emerge with the adoption of the 1835 Constitution (Sretenjski ustav), together with the development of the young Serbian state. Officials' positions further improved (hierarchical organization, permanent salary, etc.) — with the adoption of the so called Turkish Constitution.

In regards to the beginnings of civil servants' education, the authors argue that the public administration in Serbia is being studied since 1813, through translating works of the Vienna authors and that the first independent textbooks appeared in the 1840s, together with the studies of the Administrative Law on the Legal Department of the Licej High School in Belgrade.

In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the civil servants' position was re-actualized in the 1920s with the necessity of equalizing their position in the entire state. In 1931, civil servants, military officers, and clerics were included in the civil service system. Contemporary, general and special conditions for reception, performance, and cessation of the civil service, characteristic to the modern states, as well as ratings, salaries were prescribed. The civil service system was based on the principles of professionalization, political neutrality, diligence and conscientiousness, preservation of state secrets, liability for damages incurred during the performance of the service, etc.

After the Second World War, socialist Yugoslavia retained all of the characteristics of civil service mentioned above but adapted them to the new concept of socialist state order and extended them to all public services. In that period, a new term - personnel (kadrovi) was introduced into use, and special attention was paid to staff planning, personnel policy instruments, and organization of the personal service.

Introduction of the autochthonous system of workers' self-management, followed the Constitution of 1963, and the specifics of the civil servant's legal position were lost and merged with the general system of labor law. The education of employees maintained within the law faculties, and during this period distinctive scholar knowledge related to the organization and operation of the state apparatus emerged as well as the new institutions for the study of administration.

The 1990 Constitution officially marked the failure of the experiment that begun three decades earlier and the state organization has returned to the standard institutes. The same has happened with the servants employed and appointed in state administration. But, the severe shortcoming of this system was the politicization of the highest staff positions and discontinuity in the actions of the state administration.

The 21st century marked the strategic shift towards the European Union and the beginning of Serbian state and legal system adaptation to European acquis. In this context, the 2005 Civil Service Law, which, with many adjustments, remains in force, is also interpreted. The law is based on the principles of professionalism, openness, clear rules for admission, career advancement and termination of employment, responsibility, and impartiality of work, human resource management, promotion and rewarding based on the merits, etc. Unfortunately, many of these principles are not fully and entirely implemented in practice.

Future civil servants, as well as, those in service, are being educated at ten universities, as well as on National Academy for Public Administration. The traditional, German approach to the education of civil servants (which has its base at law faculties and in legal profession) is slowly beginning to be upgraded with the sociological, economic, political and multidisciplinary approach. Strong (above all economic) pressures for public administration reform ˗ caused its performance in accordance with the principles of economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. Therefore, the authors conclude that it is necessary to adjust civil servants' education on law and other faculties with the contemporary trends in public administration education.

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References

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Published

2020-10-20

How to Cite

M. Blagojević, D. (2020). CIVIL SERVANT’S LEGISLATION AND EDUCATION IN SERBIA FROM 1804 UNTIL THE PRESENT DAY. KULTURA POLISA, 17(43), 39–50. Retrieved from https://kpolisa.com/index.php/kp/article/view/212

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