URBANIZATION AND CRIME
Keywords:Urbanization, Crime, Demographic Trends of Population, Organized Crime, Unorganized Crime, Poverty, Violence, Prevention
From the economic point of view, urbanization represents a useful social process that supports the country's economic development through the growth of industrial production, service sector development and enlargement of agricultural production. From the social point of view, urbanization accelerates the expansion of crime in major cities and urban areas because of better opportunities hiding perpetrators of crimes and easier organizing of criminal organizations. Urbanization, unemployment, inflation, unequal status and rights of individuals in society, and low levels of education are the main socio-economic determinants that affect the level of development of crime in society. In the world there are five states with more than ten cities with more than million citizens: China - 89, India - 46, USA - 42, Brazil – 21 and Mexico - 12 cities. Also, today there are 21 giant cities with over 10 million residents. Dhaka in Bangladesh and Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo today have a 40 times larger area than 60 years ago. The major problem of such cities is suburban, slums, unorganized built neighborhoods, so called slums, or favelas. The population in these areas faces a number of social problems: unemployment, low level of literacy, crime, drug abuse and unsanitary living conditions. Three main manifestations of criminal activities in large urban areas are white collar crime, organized and unorganized crime. White collar crime in urban centers include fraud, criminal acts in the area of cyber crime and money laundering, which carried out the abuse of legal professions in the public administration and large companies which are concentrated in the same. The rapid process of urbanization leads to the expansion of organized crime groups in large cities involved in organized prostitution, racketeering, trafficking in persons, as well as trading and distribution of narcotics and weapons. Disorganized criminal is inherent in unregulated urban suburbs of cities where there is a lack of organized policing in the case of urban areas that have shaken the political and religious conflict. Also, there are crimes that perform individuals or groups composed temporarily and for a particular opportunity. Expansion of criminal activity is particularly pronounced in the multi-million cities in middleincome and undeveloped countries with high population growth, where population growth is not accompanied by employment, education and socialization resident population. Preventing crime is a synchronized and from all social factors supported the process, which in urban areas is managed through three levels. The primary level of prevention aims to reduce any identified factors at the level of families, communities and institutions that contribute to the development of crime is carried out through educational and informational systems, cultural institutions, social security institutions, non-governmental sector, especially through youth organizations. The secondary level is implemented through specific programs in areas that are directed on phenomenon, groups and individuals which are at greater risk for the development of criminal activities. Tertiary level is focused on action in situations where crime is already occurring, and to prevent the return of a criminal organization and conduct of serious crimes.
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